Feature Articles

Machine vision: the basics

Human operators just do not make good inspectors, regardless of how conscientious they may be.

by Valerie C. Bolhouse
Image coding in the visual system

In many cases, man-made image processing and analysis methods are designed to meet criteria from the visual system; in other cases, image processing methods have evolved independently from the visual system.

by G. Buchsbaum
Integrating vision-guided robots on the factory floor

If practical application of the technology does not become broadly based, opportunities and advancement in the field of vision systems and robotics will develop slowly.

by Terrence O'Connell
Speculations on unknown images, spectral sources, and physical constants

In this paper, we are going to tackle a problem which, at first glance, appears akin to describing the sound of one hand clapping. This is the problem of describing in some way an image, when nothing is known about its structure. The image cannot be seen, and no prior information on its statistics are given. All that is known is that it is an array of energy flux values. Surprisingly, this quest will reach a definite (and positive) conclusion; it will also lead us along a road with numerous exits into related fields. Major detours will be made into spectroscopy and (surprisingly) cosmology.

by B. Roy Frieden
Everything you ever wanted to know about standards

For the last several months we have been dealing with rather specific optical standards subjects. For a complete change this month, we feature a very general and weighty volume (some 575 pages) titled Standards Activities of Organizations in the United States (PB85-106151). This paperbound book [published in 1984 by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, Va. 22161; (703) 487-4650, costing $42.95, plus $3 for handling] lists just about anything anyone would ever want to know about federal, nongovernment, and state standards writing activities.

by Robert E. Parks
Measuring the effective radiating temperature of the ozonosphere

The experiment described this month represents a very clever application of radiation exchange. The center of the ozonosphere lies about 15 miles above the surface of the earth. In this discussion, we are not going into the photochemical reactions taking place in the ozonosphere, but instead shall focus on measuring its effective radiating temperature.

by J.H. Taylor