X-ray image depicting old vacuum (electron) tubes. Left to right: a 1931 Sylvania 35E; a 1932 Ken-Rad 57; and a 1936 Silverstone 58. In the early twentieth century, vacuum tubes were used in radio, radar sets, telecommunications, and switching operations in the earliest electronic computers. After the 1950s, they were replaced by transistors, the steppingstone between vacuum tubes and modern computer technology. Image taken with an X-ray system (ZEISS Xradia Context).
—Herminso Villarraga-Gómez, Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology, Lake Forest, CA
01 Dec 2021