In Situ Studies of Crystal Growth

D. E. Aspnes

The last two decades have been marked by steady progress in our ability to grow artificial semiconductor materials and structures, and in their use to explore and critically examine increasingly sophisticated aspects of semiconductor and low-dimensional physics. We have now reached the point where further advances depend on real-time, in situ measurement and control of the growth process itself. But the high pressure, highly reactive environments of many growth technologies prevent the use of the electron- and ion-beam spectroscopies that have been extensively developed for surface studies.

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